Summary of year 2 activities

In 2014 work has been performed according to plans and all planned deliverables for 2014 were issued.   Management, scientific coordination and communication activities (WP1, 7 & 8) included preparation and running of meetings, annual report preparation, interaction with REA, interaction with the Euro-Argo ERIC organization, interaction with MyOcean project, discussing with stakeholders (GMES/Copernicus bureau, EEA, DG Research, EuroGOOS) and development and maintenance of the E-AIMS WWW site (internal and external).  These activities have been carried out in close cooperation with the Euro-Argo ERIC management board and program manager.  Communication activities have included the preparation of leaflets on each of WP2 Tasks as well as a summary of main WP3/WP4 results.  All these leaflets are available on the external E-AIMS WWW site. Short float stories will also be integrated in the Euro-Argo educational WWW site in January 2015.  A project brochure was also prepared and completed in November 2014.  It provides a description of the project and its workpackages with illustrations based on results and activities carried out during the first half of the project.

The objective of WP2 is to test several new Argo floats which have been recently developed, and are becoming available from float manufacturers in Europe.  E-AIMS WP2 will organize an end-to-end test of these new floats: specifying float characteristics, carrying out complementary float design or sensor adaptation activities, ordering and testing them before deployment, agreeing on at sea testing procedure, deploying them, and quality control and data analysis.  The main objectives for 2014 was to deploy floats that could not have been deployed in 2013 and to continue analyzing data including sensor issues as well as interacting with float manufacturers. These objectives have been almost met (two floats still remain to be deployed in 2015).  WP3 & WP4 were completed end of December 2014.  OSE/OSSEs were conducted as initially planned and results are described in the following sections. The final workshop was held in Toulouse in December 2014 and future requirements for Argo and Euro-Argo have been discussed with the GODAE OceanView OSEVal and CLIVAR GSOP communities.  The objective of WP5 was to undertake the R&D activities necessary to improve the Euro-Argo data system to better serve the Copernicus Marine Service and adapt it to the future generation of Argo profiling floats (biogeochemical, deep, high vertical sampling).   Quality control methods for oxygen and biogeochemical parameters have been integrated in the operational Argo data processing centers.  The Argo data processing centers were also adapted so that they are now able to process data from the new floats.  WP5 was completed in September 2014 and it is now possible to ingest E-AIMS floats in the operational Argo data management system.

WP2 is structured with five tasks dedicated to test different type of new floats. A 6th one will synthesise the work at the end of the project. 1) The first task deals with the testing of a new oxygen sensor by comparing it with the sensor which has been already used on floats for several years. Navis and Arvor floats are used. Among 5 floats that were planned to be deployed, three are now cycling at sea. 2) The second task deals with the testing of deep floats. Two deep-Arvor floats with 4000m depth capability were procured with E-AIMS funding and two additional floats were procured and deployed by Ifremer. 3) The objective of the third task is to test floats equipped with bio-geochemical sensors. 6 Provor floats have been deployed in 3 different areas, and five of them are still working.  4) The aim of task 4 is to test 4 floats equipped with new satellite data transmission capabilities (Iridium and Argos3) to allow transmitting high resolution profile data and receiving remote commands thanks to the downlink. Navis and Arvor floats were procured and tested at sea. Taking into account additional Apex floats procured by UKMO, five floats are now cycling. 5) Task 5 will test floats equipped with surface ice detection capabilities in order to operate in Arctic area by postponing data transmission in case of ice detection. Two Nemo floats have been deployed and one is still functioning.

Comparison between the Aanderaa optode (red curves) and the SBE63 optode (blue curves) for Arvor-2DO 1 (left panel) and Arvor-2DO 2 (right panel) during tests in Ifremer pool.

The main objective of WP3 is to perform Observing System Experiments (with real data) and Observing System Simulation Experiments (simulate and assimilate observations to test new observing capacities with the GMES/Copernicus Marine Service assimilative systems to assess the potential of Argo and its extensions.

WP3 is divided into 4 tasks:

  • Task 3.1 led by Mercator Ocean is dealing with the global uncoupled prediction system.
  • Task 3.2 led by the Met Office is dealing with coupled prediction systems (from days to decades).
  • Task 3.3 led by INGV is dealing with regional (Mediterranean and Black Sea) analysis and prediction systems.
  • Task 3.4 led by Mercator Ocean and CLS will synthetize the results. A final workshop will be organized jointly with GODAE OceanView and CLIVAR GSOP.

The total duration of WP3 is 24 months.  The deliverables are scheduled as follows. For all regions (Global, Mediterranean and Black seas) and all applications:

  • T0+3: Initial requirements (April 2013).
  • T0+9: OSE/OSSE plans (October 2013).
  • T0+21: OSE/OSSEs results and recommendations (October 2014).
  • T0+24: Final report (December 2014).

The work carried out for this second year included the following tasks:

  •  Conduct OSEs (Observing System Evaluations) to estimate the role of the current Argo floats in different type of analysis and forecasting services (R/T forced and coupled, seasonal and decadal).
  •  Simulate pseudo-observations mimicking the future possible deployment of new Argo floats, conduct OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments) in different context of analysis and forecasting services (R/T forced and coupled, seasonal and decadal).
  •  Synthetize the different experimental results to draw recommendations on the Argo array evolution in the framework of analysis and forecasting services.

The mean SST observation-background differences binned to 0.25º for the control (left) and no-Argo experiment (right) over the period 22-30 October 2012. The best-track positions of Hurricane Sandy are show every 12 hours from 12Z on 22-10-2012 to 12Z on 30-10-2012.

The activities in WP4 have aimed to better understand the robustness of the remote sensing validation when Argo data are used. Moreover, the studies performed during this WP have focused in providing a set of suggestions about the evolution of the Argo array to improve remote sensing validation. The fields under consideration are: Sea level (Task 4.1), ocean colour (Task 4.2), sea surface temperature (Task 4.3), and sea surface salinity (Task 4.4). The total duration of this WP is 24 months (starting on month one). Each task has provided a set of three deliverables, two of which were delivered during the first year period and the last one delivered during the second year.

The activities during the current period have focused on providing a summary of the various impact studies performed and a set of recommendations and a final synthesis. The results were discussed in the WP3 and WP4 Final Workshop held at the CLS premises in Toulouse on December 12, 2014.

Monthly sampling error for recent distribution of Argo observations (from SST: Results and Recommendations, Figure 3).

Total number of Argo near-surface observations for December 2013 minus monthly number of observations required to achieve sampling error of 0.02 K in all ocean areas (from SST: Results and Recommendations, Figure 4).

WP5 is divided in 3 tasks which are dedicated to:

  • The development of Real Time and Delayed mode QC procedure for oxygen variable;
  • The development of Real Time and Delayed mode QC procedure for other biogeochemical variables;
  • Enhancement of the European DACS to process the new generation floats tested in WP2.

Dissolved oxygen concentration anomaly at 300 m depth compared to the WOA09. All Argo oxygen data available at Coriolis GDAC were interpolated with ISAS. The real-time and delayed mode QC procedure was applied to the data before the interpolation.

Dissolved oxygen concentration anomaly at 300 m depth compared to the WOA09. All Argo oxygen data available at Coriolis GDAC were interpolated with ISAS. The real-time and delayed mode QC procedure was applied to the data before the interpolation.

The objective of WP6 is to demonstrate that Euro-Argo data centres can process in real time the data of the new floats developed and tested in WP2, distribute them to MyOcean modelling and forecasting centres and satellite Cal/Val teams and that these teams can effectively use these new data sets. Float data will be either directly assimilated or used for validation. The impact will be limited  given  the  limited  number  of  floats  but  the  objective  here  is  mainly  an  end-to-end assessment. The WP also includes the final assessment of the project (synthesis of all WPs and final recommendations).

WP6 is divided into 4 tasks:

  •  Task 6.1 : Real time data processing of new Argo floats and interfaces with MyOcean (T0+18 - T0+36)
  •  Task 6.2 : Impact and use for GMES Marine Service (T0+24 - T0+33)
  •  Task 6.3 : Impact and use for satellite Cal/Val (T0+24 - T0+33)
  •  Task 6.4 : Final assessment (T0+33 - T0+36)

The total duration of the WP is 18 months, starting at T0+18. The deliverables and milestones are scheduled as follows:

  •  T0+18 (June 2014): New floats deployed in WP2 are processed in real time and delivered to MyOcean and satellite Cal/Val (milestone MS611)
  •  T0+33 (September 2015): Report of new float data real time processing by Euro-Argo data centers (deliverable D6.611)
  •  T0+33  (September  2015):  Use  and  impact  of  new  floats  for  GMES  Marine  Service (deliverable D6.621)
  •  T0+33 (September 2015): Use and impact of new floats for satellite Cal/Val (deliverable D6.631)
  •  T0+36 (December 2015): Final synthesis report (deliverable D6.641)

The work carried out during the second year of the project was essentially part of Task 6.1 about the processing in real time of the data provided by new floats and the data delivery to MyOcean and satellite Cal/Val. The activities of the other tasks will be performed during the third year of the project.  Details about the work accomplished during the second year in Task 6.1 are provided below.

A WWW page (http://www.coriolis.eu.org/Data- Products/Maps-corner/Argo- Projects/Europe/E_AIMS) has been set up on Coriolis WWW site that allows viewing and downloading the E-AIMS floats.